The monthly salary of 14000 can't recruit mechanical graduation students in China!
Release time:2022-04-29
Original: reporter Li Yonghua

abstract:2022-04-28 15:51The students have long been signed off by other factories with an annual salary of 2.3 million to broadcast the article,​Official account of China economic weekly magazine, creator of high-quality financial field

From the demographic dividend to the worker dividend, the future of made in China is clear.

The difficulty of recruitment is the common voice of almost all manufacturing enterprises. At the recruitment site of Guangdong foreign trade manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises, there are more bosses than workers looking for jobs; Beijing central enterprises said that young people are reluctant to enter factories. The manufacturing giant roast that the "unprecedented" high salary still failed to attract people.

However, the other side of the shortage of workers is the difficulty of employment, especially for tens of millions of fresh college students. This structural contradiction clearly shows that many people's understanding of workers is still at the level of women assembly line garment workers in the 1980s and 1990s. The collective memory of "dirty, heavy and tired" has not been eliminated. The new concept of diversified and free employment has formed a new impact. The manufacturing industry, which used to be difficult to find a job, no longer seems to be the first choice for employment.

Where will workers come from in the future? What kind of workers will be needed for the future made in China?

Where young people choose, there is a future. It is undeniable that in the face of more and more employment opportunities, young people are leaving the assembly line, and assembly line enterprises are transferring production capacity to regions with lower costs at home and abroad.

Fortunately, the equipment manufacturing giant said that skilled workers will be transformed into engineers. Craftsmen in big countries say that in the future, skilled workers will be the treasure of enterprises. Like old traditional Chinese medicine, the older they are, the more popular they will be. In various interviews, the reporter of China Economic Weekly found that the new environment brought about by the high-quality development of manufacturing industry is refreshing young people's understanding of workers' posts, the position of skilled workers within enterprises continues to rise, craftsmen in large countries are becoming the professional pursuit of more and more young people, and a well-educated team of high-quality skilled workers is becoming the support of the future competitiveness of made in China.

The transformation is on the way, "created in China" to the future.

"Great country craftsmen, the country needs people like you."

AI Aiguo is the idol of Huang Hongjun and Huang Hongbing brothers. Huang Hongjun, who was born in 2000, has been a welder for five years.

中国经济周刊首席摄影记者 肖翊摄2.jpeg


In 2017, after graduating from Changsha High Tech Engineering School, he and his twin brother Huang Hongbing entered Zoomlion (000157. SZ). Five years later, both brothers became welding experts in the structure factory of Zoomlion, and his brother Huang Hongbing was particularly outstanding, winning the first place in the "craftsman Cup" new welding skill competition of Zoomlion; He won the third prize in the "Jacques Cup" international welding competition known as the "welding world cup".

"Solid theoretical knowledge, rich practical experience and superb welding skills," wrote Huang Hongbing on the cultural wall of Zoomlion workshop. "Electrode arc welding, GMAW, TIG and other welding technologies have high attainments. Now the forearm team is engaged in X-ray flaw detection of key core welds, and the qualified rate has reached 99.9%."

In 2017, when their brothers entered the factory to become a new industrial worker, China opened a new era of industrial worker team construction reform.

The CPC Central Committee has always attached great importance to the construction of industrial workers, and it is the first time in the history of our party and country to formulate and implement the reform plan for the construction of industrial workers in the new era and make special plans and arrangements for the construction and reform of industrial workers.

By the end of 2021, there were more than 200 million skilled talents and more than 60 million highly skilled talents in China.

However, on August 30, 2021, Gao Gao, Deputy Secretary General of the national development and Reform Commission, introduced in an interview that the recruitment rate of skilled talents in China has remained above 1.5 for a long time, and high skilled talents even have to reach more than 2. At present, the total proportion of skilled talents in China is increasing, but compared with the huge labor force population, the proportion is still low, which is less than 30%. Germany, Japan and other manufacturing powers can account for 70% ~ 80% of the total skilled talents.

Wang Dongming, chairman of the all China Federation of trade unions, believes that compared with the requirements of promoting high-quality development, there are still some problems in the industrial workforce, such as the overall low skill quality and the insufficient total number of skilled workers. We must accelerate the reform of the construction of industrial workers, strive to build a large contingent of high-quality industrial workers, and provide strong human support for high-quality development. The 14th five year plan for employment promotion points out that many new changes and trends have taken place in the field of employment during the 14th Five Year Plan period. With the in-depth adjustment of population structure and economic structure, great changes have taken place on both sides of labor supply and demand. Industrial transformation and upgrading and technological progress have put forward higher requirements for the skills and quality of workers. The phenomenon that talent training does not meet the market demand has further intensified. The coexistence of "difficult employment" and "difficult recruitment" and the more prominent contradiction of structural employment will become the main contradiction in the field of employment.

During the two sessions this year, Yang Weimin, member of the Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee, said that at present, there are structural contradictions in employment. On the one hand, there is a general lack of skilled workers in the manufacturing industry; On the other hand, youth unemployment is high.

Zou bin, a deputy to the National People's Congress and a worker in the construction industry born in 1995, told the reporter of China Economic Weekly that at present, there is indeed a lack of green and yellow on the construction site, and most workers on the construction site are post-50s and post-60s. There are more and more industries with higher degrees of freedom, and young people have more and more employment choices. Many young people are unwilling to enter the construction industry.

Liu Bin, head of human resources of a listed manufacturing company in Jiangxi, said that many types of technical work have been dating, and there are no young people to try, and the country is also aware of this problem. China is in a critical period of moving forward from an industrial power to an industrial power. It is necessary to cultivate and carry forward the spirit of rigorous, earnest, excellence and perfection, so that made in China The miracle created by China can continue.

Wang Dongming believes that whether it is to implement the manufacturing power strategy, promote industrial transformation and upgrading, or deal with the adjustment and reorganization of the international industrial chain supply chain, maintain the safety and stability of China's industrial chain supply chain, and improve the quality of industrial workers are the foundation and key.

So, from a big manufacturing country to a powerful manufacturing country, can China's manufacturing industry attract young people to enter factories? In the new era of digitization, intelligence and globalization, what unique style will skilled workers present in the future?

On March 31, AI Aiguo, 73, told China Economic Weekly that industrial workers who master the process flow are the "sweet pastry" urgently needed by enterprises. Even if enterprises are intelligent and intelligent in the future, they cannot do without their own craftsmen.

Extensive research by China Economic Weekly found that future workers will no longer be the "dirty and black" blue collar workers in our old impression. They are saying goodbye to the "dangerous and dirty" working environment, mastering sophisticated technology, becoming popular high-end talents in the market, enjoying better and better employment opportunities, gradually becoming a high-income group, and winning more and more respect and recognition from the society and the government.

Relying on superb technology, Huang Hongjun and Huang Hongbing, young people from poor families in Leiyang, Hunan Province, have not only built new buildings in their hometown, but also planned to buy homes and cars in Changsha. Huang Hongjun told the reporter of China Economic Weekly: "I have some good players (classmates and friends), some do business, some do engineering, and some work. It seems that we are not as good as me. We are tired from our work, but we have a high sense of happiness."

Li Xiaohong, director of Zoomlion human resources management center, said that with the continuous deepening of the construction of the company's smart factory, more and more workers will be transformed into field engineers and will be in the same sequence as technicians.

According to the relevant person in charge of the HR field of Jiangling group, the company is exploring the establishment of an internal training mechanism for new skilled talents. The technical posts related to new skills in the company have been given priority to internal employees to help employees engaged in general work and traditional types of work transform to new skilled talents.

Not only are skilled workers such as Huang Hongjun brothers, but new energy, integrated circuits, industrial automation and other industries are favored by more and more highly educated talents. There are many doctors and returnees in some traditionally regarded blue collar posts, and the separation line between blue collar and white collar is gradually becoming blurred.

Photo by Xiao Yi, Chief Photographer of China Economic Weekly

14000 monthly salary for mechanical students, but "no one came in"

The 14th five year plan for employment promotion points out that we should pay attention to the development of skill intensive industries, promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional manufacturing industries, empower and extend the industrial chain, and develop more skilled jobs in manufacturing.

According to the "ranking of 100 occupations with more than" the most needed jobs "in the fourth quarter of 2021 released by China Employment Training and technical guidance center, 43 of these 100 occupations belong to production and manufacturing and related personnel. The degree of job shortage in the field of" intelligent manufacturing "has increased, the demand in the field of automobile production and consumption is strong, and the ranking of new occupations such as" automobile parts remanufacturing "," automobile trim manufacturing "and" automobile maintenance workers "has been made; In the field of intelligent manufacturing, "multi process CNC machine tool operation and adjustment worker" and "industrial robot system operator" have risen, and the degree of labor shortage has increased.

Supply and demand determine the trend. Shortage means that technical talents are more valuable in the market.

Three years ago, Liu Jun graduated from a civil engineering college in Xi'an and left after working in a construction company for nearly a year. He failed in the postgraduate entrance examination. He went to chalk education, Naixue's tea and meituan takeout store for some time.

Now, at the age of 25, he reviews his experience. "He hasn't mastered a good specialty for several years". In the future, he hopes to take root in an industry, find a job with a little technical threshold and go in to learn and improve.

Yin Qi, 25, went out to work after graduating from junior high school, went to a mobile phone assembly factory, stayed in a car factory, and used to mix network management in an Internet cafe, mainly to rub free games. After the Spring Festival this year, he finally decided to learn carpentry.


Whether Zeng Jun or Yin Qi, they all understand that high skills mean high wages, not to mention a skill in hand and never worry about it.

Peng Zaiwu, general manager of the system branch of CRRC times Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd., told China Economic Weekly: "now there is an urgent need for highly skilled craftsmen in various manufacturing enterprises, such as senior welders or other special types of work, and the salary is very high."


AI Aiguo believes that the treatment is the fundamental reason why new workers are welcomed by young people. In recent years, the treatment of skilled workers in Valin Xiangtan Iron and steel plant has increased with the rise of enterprise efficiency, "workers don't want to leave when they come".

Gong Xiaohong, the person in charge of Jiangxi chezhibao Auto Service Plaza, said that the auto repair specialty is short of people all over the country, which is very good for employment. Some technicians can earn up to 200000 yuan a year. "If you give me 500 graduates now, I can close my eyes and arrange employment for them at will".

The person in charge of human resources of a manufacturing enterprise said that in February this year, the company went to a 985 university to recruit students majoring in machinery and hydraulics, and the monthly salary was as high as 14000 yuan. "We made a great determination to give such a standard, which has never been seen in the history of the company".

Unexpectedly, no one paid attention to this special recruitment, "no student came in". Later, upon inquiry, the students of this class had already been signed and locked in advance by other large factories with higher wages. "When people speak, their annual salary is more than 230000".

The excellent treatment has quietly tilted the balance in the minds of job seekers, and even the employees of "Internet factory" also want to "move". According to the spring recruitment market report released by Zhilian Research Institute, compared with 2019, 6.3% of Internet practitioners hope to turn to the processing and manufacturing industry in the spring of 2022, an increase of 2 percentage points over 2019.

From the development history of global manufacturing industry, with the overall upgrading and development of China's manufacturing industry, skilled workers must be more and more popular.

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Chen Weizheng, a professor at Sichuan University, believes that skilled workers are very popular in manufacturing powers such as Germany and Japan. It is a treasure of the factory for college students to find a large manufacturing company after graduation and become a craftsman skilled worker.

The older the patriot, the more skilled the worker is.

Photo by Xiao Yi, Chief Photographer of China Economic Weekly


Internal working site map of Zoomlion smart industry city workshop

From workers to engineers, it is a decent job to say goodbye to "danger, complexity and dirty"

The 14th five year plan for employment promotion proposes to promote the automation and intellectualization of simple and repetitive work links and "dangerous, complicated and dirty" jobs as soon as possible, and speed up the "machine replacement" in the field of major safety risks.

Liu Qing, a post-95 welder in the same workshop as Huang Hongjun, passed the test this year. Recently, he took up his post in Zoomlion as a "field engineer". The original blue tooling was replaced with a new suit. "In the future, the salary will be paid according to the company's R & D technology sequence", and his work will be more about operating welding robots.

Huang Hongjun said that he is planning to sign up for undergraduate study and apply to become an on-site engineer this year. "In the future, we will go to work in the smart industry city, where there are smart production lines, and the factory is too big to see."


Zoomlion smart industry city covers an area of nearly 10000 mu and is expected to be the largest single Park in the field of construction machinery in the world.

In the completed excavator production workshop, the reporter of China Economic Weekly saw that it is equipped with many automation equipment full of sense of science and technology, including AGV full-automatic robot, RGV rail conveyor car and glue coating robot, so as to realize highly intelligent operation. According to the official data of Zoomlion, an excavator can be offline every six minutes.

At present, Zoomlion has nearly 10000 skilled workers. Li Xiaohong, director of Zoomlion human resources management center, introduced that during the "14th five year plan" period, after the smart industry city is fully completed, Zoomlion's "on-site engineers" will reach 10000.

Not only Zoomlion, but also in Gree Electric Appliance (000651. SZ), Valin steel (000932. SZ) and many manufacturing enterprises, as well as some garment production enterprises and highly intelligent workshops, have changed the old impression of "dangerous and dirty" left by the manufacturing industry. Many of the original "dangerous and dirty" types of work have either completely disappeared or reborn.

In the past, painters were technical workers, and tower crane coating required many manual operations, but the painting work was tired and prone to occupational diseases. Now, as the world's largest tower crane manufacturer, Zoomlion has adopted intelligent manufacturing, and the coating is all automatic operation, so there is no smell of paint in the workshop.

Even the dirtiest and most tiring waste treatment industry is changing. In Yingfeng environment (000967. SZ), the reporter of China Economic Weekly learned that the utilization rate of small intelligent equipment is becoming popular and the labor intensity of sanitation workers is decreasing; At first glance, the waste incineration station of Yongqing environmental protection (300187. SZ) looks like a garden. The waste is transported into the station in a closed way and handled by unmanned operation. The workers only need to operate on the screen to complete most of the work.

High labor intensity, poor working environment and high safety risk are the characteristics of the traditional construction industry. It is the industry consensus that young people are unwilling to work.


Zou bin told the reporter of China Economic Weekly that on the one hand, the fifth Bureau of China Construction Engineering Co., Ltd. developed construction robots with a high degree of standardization to replace some heavy tasks with high risk; On the other hand, "a lot of traditional work on the construction site is transferred to the factory workshop, which also brings the construction workers on the construction site to the factory, transforms them into industrial workers, and carries out professional skill improvement training".

He Yuming, chief engineer of Yanghu talent apartment project of decoration company of China Construction Fifth Bureau, introduced that the project site has set up a centralized processing room, equipped with dust removal facilities, and adopts dry dust removal technology to uniformly deal with on-site dust, so as to create a "dust-free" site and protect the respiratory health of on-site operators.

All manufacturing enterprises hope to convey such information to the outside world in various ways and win the recognition of more young people.

The relevant person in charge of the HR field of Jiangling group said that the Post-70s and post-80s employees pay more attention to the salary level and career development, while the post-90s and post-00s pay more attention to the degree of freedom, working environment and being concerned by the team. In recent years, the company has adopted emerging self-Media channels for three-dimensional publicity to change the stereotyped impression of young people on the style of manufacturing industry.

Wan Junlong, a production line worker of Anhui Lianbao technology, said that he had convinced 25 relatives and friends to work in his factory. "Yes, many people will consider delivering express and takeout, but I will tell them that the working environment of the factory is very good now. You can eat and live in the factory instead of being dirty and messy. More importantly, you will have room for learning and promotion when you work in the factory. By learning technology and accumulating experience, you will become more and more valuable."

The 14th five year plan: "improve the treatment level and social status of skilled talents"

As a post-95, Zou Bin said, "we care more about our growth space and social status, which is the biggest difference between me and my father's generation."

However, Liu Bin, head of human resources of a listed manufacturing company in Jiangxi Province, said: "today's skilled workers don't have the pride they used to have. They give outsiders the impression that they are hardworking. Therefore, the social status of workers will be low."

In the 1950s, China implemented an eight grade wage system, and the technical level of workers was linked to the wage level. Grade 8 workers are not only highly paid, but also of high status.

"My grandfather is a carpenter and a grade 8 worker. His salary is higher than that of the factory director. After retirement, provincial leaders visit the village every year." Speaking of his grandfather's glory, Mr. Yu of Shaoyang, Hunan, is still proud.

Lu Xindi is an engine assembly and adjustment worker of Deutz FAW (Dalian) Diesel Engine Co., Ltd. and has won seven provincial and ministerial science and technology awards. He is a famous "craftsman in a big country". According to Xinhua news agency, in 2019, when Lu Xindi participated in the evaluation of senior engineers, he was rejected by the company on the grounds that: "the company's engineering and technical personnel have not yet had a senior engineer. If you are evaluated, you are afraid that others will have ideas. Workers are not qualified to evaluate."

The reality faced by Lu Xindi shows that the social status of workers really needs to be improved, and change is taking place.

In 2020, Du Jun, the front-line technical worker and chief technician of the energy center of Jiuquan Iron and Steel Group, won the title of senior engineer. In July 2021, Lu Xindi was finally awarded the senior title of Zheng.

On January 7, 2022, Tang Tao, Vice Minister of human resources and social security, said that we should not only break through the "ceiling" of the upward development of skilled workers, but also open up the channel of horizontal career development, so as to provide some new measures for skilled talents in terms of treatment level, incentive and guarantee.

The fact that Zou bin, a "bricklayer", was elected as a deputy to the National People's Congress itself shows that the state attaches great importance to industrial workers, which can also be said to be a guide to social values.

Zou bin was born in a small mountain village in Xinhua County, Hunan Province in 1995. Before graduating from junior high school, he followed his elders to work on construction sites and became a "small Mason". In 2015, Zou bin won the winning award of masonry project in the 43rd World skills competition, and won the first medal of the project for China. In 2018, Zou bin, 22, was elected to the National People's Congress.

Among the deputies to the 13th National People's Congress, there were 468 front-line workers and farmers, accounting for 15.70% of the total, an increase of 2.28 percentage points over the previous session.

On March 5, the draft decision on the number of deputies to the 14th National People's Congress and elections submitted to the fifth session of the 13th National People's Congress clearly stated that among the deputies to the 14th National People's Congress, the proportion of grass-roots representatives, especially front-line workers, farmers and professional and technical personnel, has increased compared with the previous session.

The relevant person in charge of HR field of Jiangling Group believes that if we want to improve the social status of workers, on the one hand, the education system should gradually change everyone's understanding of workers' social status around the craftsman spirit advocated by the state; On the other hand, in the process of employment, enterprises should pay full attention to the development of workers, respect and care for workers, improve workers' welfare, and gradually improve the social status of workers from point to area.

AI Aiguo said that the key is treatment. If the treatment of skilled workers is high and the working environment is good, their social status will naturally rise.

At present, the professional development evaluation of skilled workers is five levels, namely primary workers, intermediate workers, senior workers, technicians and senior technicians.

At the beginning of this year, the Ministry of human resources and social security said that China is exploring the establishment of a "new eight level" vocational skill level system for skilled talents, that is, from low to high, and adding chief technicians on the basis of apprentices, junior workers, intermediate workers, senior workers, technicians, senior technicians and special technicians.

Huafeng Chemical (002064. SZ) has a new "eight level skilled worker system" to offer millions of annual salary to front-line senior skilled workers.

More and more enterprises include skilled workers into the scope of equity incentive. In June 2021, Gree Electric Appliance included a group of skilled workers when it launched the employee stock ownership plan. Dong Mingzhu said that the effect of salary increase is not ideal, and Gree will focus on retaining talents through the employee stock ownership plan in the future.

Li Xiaohong said that nearly 100 skilled talents were listed in the roster of core personnel and enterprise backbone granted by Zoomlion equity incentive.

The 14th five year plan and the outline of long-term goals for 2035 point out that "we should broaden the channels for the rise of skilled workers, unblock the channels for non-public economic organizations, social organizations and freelance professional and technical personnel to declare their professional titles and identify their skill levels, and improve the treatment level and social status of skilled talents".